Tiananmen SquareTiananmen Square is the heart and symbol of Beijing and is the biggest square in the world. Tiananmen ( Gate of Heaven Peace ), which is on the north of the square, is originally the frontispiece of the imperial city of Ming and Qing Dynasties, constructed in the fifteenth year of Ming Yong Le. The original name of it is the Gate of Heavenly Succession (Chentianmen), which means shouldering the duty from the Heaven. In the eighth year of Emperor Shunzhi of Qing dynasty it was reconstructed and got its name Tian An Men Rostrum. Tiananmen Rostrum is 33.7 meters high, it is a peak city gate tower with double eaves. The Rostrum is nine Ying wide and five rooms deep. Numbers nine and five symbolize the most superiorily. There are 60 huge and towering columns on the rostrum where floor is paved with gold brick. There are chestnut lattice fan gate on south and north. There painted Chinese traditional auspicious picture and gold dragon colored painting on Tian Hua Gate and girder. There are five arch passages in the face of the Rostrum and the path in the very middle is especially reserved for the Emperor himself. Tiananmen is the place of issuing imperial edicit by emperors of Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasties. It is used when there are important celebration activities, such as ascending the throng of new emperor, marriage and sacrifice, and the parents of the emperor come into the Palace. In addition, before the emperor personally led his soldiers in a military operation or senior generals go out for a battle, they should hold sacrifice in front of Tian An Men and pray for victory. There is the outer golden water in front of city gate tower and seven jade stone bridges run across the river. The most spacious bridge in the middle the “ Imperial Bridge ”which is used by the Emperor exclusively. The “Royals'Bridges” on the two sides of the “Royals'Bridges” is used by officials above rank three. Official and soldiers below rank four and servant could only use the “ Common Bridge . Common Bridges run across before the Imperial Ancestral Temple (nowadays the Working People's Cultural Palace ) and the State Temple (nowadays Zhongshan Park ). Tiananmen has been repaired four times after 1949. Opening time is from 8:00 Am. To.17:00 P.M., and the price is 15 Yuan.
Come out of Tiananmen, and then enter into the largest city-central square of the world Tian'anmen Square. It is 500 meters wide ,880 meters long and the ground is paved with light granite slate disposed through special technology treatment. The flag-raising ceremony at sunrise and flag-lowering ceremony at sunset are the most magnificent rites.
On the west of Tiananmen Square it is the Great Hall of the People, the meeting place of national people's congress of the People's Republic of China . The Great Hall with huge and complicated engineering was built within ten months, possessing central hall, great hall, banqueting hall with 7000 square meters, office building of people congress standing committee and hall named with all provinces and autonomous region. The whole area is 172.000 square meters and there are 25 huge columns at the front of frontispiece. Visiting time is from 9:00 to 1400, and the price is 15 Yuan. You can enter to visit from east gate.
On the east of Tiananmen Square is The National Museum of China, and visiting the exhibition is like reading concise China General History. Here is state special museum of collecting, exhibiting and researching China ancient and neoteric cultural relics.
There are Monument to the People's Heroes and Chairman Mao's Mausoleum on the south. Its external design adopts the session of China People Politics Consultative Conference in 1949. Its external design adopts the project made by Professor Liang Sicheng. Moument is composed of 413 granites and monument base is paved of 17.000 granites and white marbles. There are eight white marble sculptures on the monument seat: including a series of importanti history events, Such as Opium burning in Humen, Jintian Uprising. Wuchang Uprising. The May 4th Movement of 1919. the May 30th Movement of 1925, Nanchang Upring. War against Japan and Successful Crossing of the Changjiang River. Design of the tower represents perfect quintessence of socialism practical art and symbolizes Chinese revere and memory for reolution martyr.
Chairman Mao's Mausoleum started to construct in November 1976 and completed in May 1977. The area is 2000 square meters and it is composed of north hall ( the place holding memorial activity), viewing hall (crystal hall special for Chairman Mao relique) and south hall. In addition, there are Mao Zedong, Zhou Enlai, Liu Shaoqi and Zhu De revolution achievement memorial rooms. If you want to view Chairman Mao's dead portrait, please pay attention to opening time: the whole day of Monday, Wednesday and Friday and A.M 8:30-11:30 and P.M 1430-1640 of Tuesday. Thursday and Saturday. Specially notice: any kinds of bags of visitors should be deposited before visiting and don't wander around at will and make noise when you enter into viewing hall.